Contrasting Analysis on Ann Putnam and Rebecca Nurse

Contrasting Analysis on Ann Putnam and Rebecca Nurse
Both Ann Putnam and Rebecca Nurse could be seen as one of the respectable women in the village of Salem. Ann??™s husband, Thomas, was the wealthiest man in the village. Francis Nurse, Rebecca??™s husband, had a good reputation as a mediator for past disputes and people thought highly of them. Even if their background seems similar, it was just on the surface. In the play, their actions and dialogue serve illustrate the stark contrast between the two of them.

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The village of Salem was ruled by theocracy, which means that there??™s heavy religious context imposed in the community. In a Puritan society, it is no surprise that Ann Putnam and Rebecca Nurse are Christians. It must be emphasized that declaring oneself a Christian is only on a superficial level, but one??™s voice and actions will prove if they are really true believers on the inside.
Ann Putnam is only a Christian on the superficial sense to blend in with the rest of Puritan Salem, but she doesn??™t really live out the teachings of her Christian faith. Ann is a very superstitious person and shows a morbid fascination in the supernatural. Ann also had the frequent urge to link every seemingly insignificant occurrences to the supernatural without justifications. She believes that all her past and present misfortunes were the devil??™s work.
???They(Her 7 babies) were murdered??¦ how else is she struck dumb now except some power of darkness would stop her mouth???
???I??™d not call it sick, the devil??™s touch is heavier than the sick.???
???She cannot bear to hear the lord??™s name??¦ mark it for a sign!???
The slow manifestation of her fascination towards the supernatural led her to seek out answers through witchcraft and black magic. In Act 1, she confessed to seeking Tituaba??™s help in conjuring up the spirit of her several dead babies. Her desire to seek out answers through paranormal channel proves that her status as a Christian was only a facade to blend in with society.
On the other hand, Rebecca Nurse is a truly devoted Christian with keen and unmoving faith. Unlike Ann, Rebecca acts according to the teachings of Christianity and even reaches out to others with her soothing presence. When she enters the room in Act 1, she immediately spreads her calmness over to Betty, her natural care and gentleness for others is felt throughout the whole room and the tension before quietly dies down.
Rebecca doesn??™t harbor any superstitious beliefs like Ann, nor does she attempt to connect to the supernatural in any way, except to communicate with God. She??™s also fully aware of the perverse effects of the demonic arts, and knows that witchcraft and magic are areas that should be avoided.
???There??™s prodigious danger in seeking loose spirits.???
Rebecca Nurse tends to be very rational and sensible in her way of thinking and reasoning, because of her non-existent superstitious beliefs. She doesn??™t immediately point her finger at the devil for all the hysteria and strangeness going on in Salem. For instance, she believes that Ruth and Betty were just going through their ???silly seasons??™ and it was just their mischievous selves. When Ann Putnam said that her Ruth cannot eat and is bewildered, Rebecca rebukes her by saying that she??™s not hungered yet. She very level-headed and doesn??™t always try to find someone or something to blame. Her sense of self-reflection and responsibility could be seen when she said ???let us blame ourselves??¦??™ rather than supernatural factors. She is nothing like Ann Putnam, who believes that every misfortune is inflicted upon her by external forces and fails to reflect personally. Instead, Rebecca advices everyone to reflect upon themselves and try to search for our own imperfections rather than highlighting the flaws of others.
We can see that both Ann and Rebecca??™s belief system serve as a driving force in shaping their character and personality, it also significantly affects their use of language and the contents of their speech.
Ann Putnam, having experienced several miscarriages in the past, is a very weary and tortured soul. Hence when there is a rumor of witchcraft going around in Salem, she is the first to visit the allegedly affected household, Parris and Betty. She exaggerates the illness of Ruth and Betty.
???How high did she fly How high???
???The psalm! She cannot bear to hear the Lord??™s name!!???
From these examples, we could see the dramatic flair that Ann uses in her speech, she seeks to evoke reactions from other characters and to add more oil to the burning rumor of witchcraft and the devil. She cries ???witch??™ or ???the devil??™s mark??? at every little twist of events, hoping to bring the town of Salem into frenzy. Ann desires the growing hysteria because finally she isn??™t the only one with the misfortunes, she feeds on the commotion and panic as a kind taking revenge on the people of Salem who didn??™t suffer like she did.
Rebecca Nurse didn??™t undergo scarring experiences like Ann did, she was deeply religious and that contributed to her sense of calmness and peace when facing dilemmas. She has a calming presence over other characters when she entered and tries to mediate upon the heated quarrel between Parris and Proctor. Rebecca attempts to maintain the peace and tries to prevent the matter from escalating further more. For example she disapproves the coming of Hale to resolve matters because it??™ll only be a confirmation of the existence of witches in Salem, which would only lead the town into further panic and unrest. Rebecca refuses to join in the blind hysteria and often uses cool reason and logic to contradict Ann??™s superstitions.
Ann Putnam and Rebecca Nurse are two polar characters in the play. One serves to intensify the drama and one suppresses the tension. It is evident in Ann??™s actions and dialogue that she revels in the uproar, she has ulterior motives. But Rebecca was just an innocent character being forced into the whirlwind of events, she does what is true and good and doesn??™t come to hasty conclusions. We could see that Rebecca is strong, up-right and respectable whereas Ann is somewhat sinister and rotten to the core.Louise Pau L6A (30)

How Important Are Introductory Paragraphs for Formal or Business Letters

How important are Introductory Paragraphs for formal or business letters
Today modern technology offers us so many different ways of communication that writing letters may seem something of the past, particularly as it is becoming faster and more concise, for example the every day use of emails and text messages. This is why today the introductory paragraph of formal and business letters is much more important as it is the way to catch the readers attention and interest in order to entice them to continue reading the letter.
In English you will find that there are many rules and guidelines on how to write a formal or business letter, all linguist experts and professional companies, such as recruitment agencies, agreed that the first paragraph is they key point to attract the recipient”s interest,r. The content of the first paragraph varies according to why and who you are writing to, for example to name a few:
??? Application/cover letter
??? Marketing letter
??? Fund RaisingA cover letter seems today to be the most in demand formal letter. Writing a cover letter, for example to apply for a job, needs to be a factual summary of your skills, experience and achievements so it can tell the reader briefly about who you are and what you can offer to the company. The first paragraph is where the candidate shows off, stating clearly its experience and interest in the role the reason why he/she thinks is the best person suited for the role. For example:???I have over 10 years of experience in marketing and administration and have applied my sales and marketing skills successfully by meeting the sales target set up by my manager and generate sales in excess of ?100 thousands. Also possess excellent organizational skills and proven ability to establish successful marketing campaigns and promote business development.??? Marketing letters, with this type of letter the customer has to be interested in what is in offer, so the first paragraph has to let her/him know of the benefits of the company, special offers and/or new products. These type of letters are used by companies to regain customers that have moved to competitors, gain new customers and keep current ones loyal to the company, hence they are very important in their marketing campaigns.Fund Raising letters, your donation request letters need to have a clear idea of who your targets are. Needs to tell potential donors at very early stage of your letter what you need and what your non profit organization is doing with the funds you raise. Many successful companies start indicating their reason to right to you in the envelope, just like some sales letters. In the body of the letter you may write more supporting statements including additional information.I recently attended a seminar for unemployed people organised by the job center, one of the speakers was from May & Stephens recruitment and careers company and he explain that ??? due to the current employment situation, employers are receiving too many applicants for one job, that they can not read every letter so their criteria to reject an applicant has become extremely picky, any letter start with a boring sentence, misspelling etc. are disregarded immediately???, this applied to all kind of letters.

We can conclude that the first paragraph is the key to reach your objective – so if you want your letter to be read by the recipient next time give it a more thought to your first paragraph.


A writers style is what distinguishes him from other writers. The style in which a writer uses to write a story clearly? indicates the tone of a story. The style of a writer is made up of different traits and characteristics when a story is written. These traits and characteristics include, but are not limited to, characterization and symbolism. When evaluating a literature piece for style, a person should analyze the writing by looking for these five elements: diction, images, details, language, and sentence structure. There are two well known writers that possess completely different writing styles. They are Ernest Hemingway and William Faulkner. Hemingway and Faulkner lived in the same time period and wrote about what has been referred to as universal truths. But, their writing varied in more ways than not. Something as simple as sentence structure played a major role in setting them apart from each other.

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Ernest Hemingway was born in Oak Park, Illinois on July 21, 1899. He began his career writing for a newspaper. During this time, he was influenced by writers and artists of the 1920s known as the Lost Generation. In 1926, Hemingway wrote his first novel, The Sun Also Rises. He wrote mostly short stories using monosyllabic words to create a seemingly simple story. All of Hemingways stories are simple and straight to the point, yet they possess qualities in which the reader is often deceived. In his stories, a person must read between the lines to discover the true meaning if his writing. Hemingway used themes with deep meanings, lessons, and ideas that everyone should know about and lessons we should all learn. He did not show the themes on the surface of his writing. Therefore, when a reader did realize what his stories truly meant, they were easy to remember and use in daily life. “For a true writer, each book should be a new beginning where he tries again for something that is beyond attainment. He should always try for something that has never been done or that others have tried and failed. Then sometimes, with great luck, he will succeed.” (Hemingway)
? ? ?  William Faulkner was born in New Albany, Mississippi on September 25, 1897 to a southern family. While studying at the University of Mississippi, he worked for a bookstore and a newspaper. He was born with the last name Faulkner and later changed it after publishing his first book, a collection of poems called The Marble Faun, in 1924. The language used in Barn Burning gives way to his southern style and creates a particular dialect with words such as naw and hit don. Many of his techniques were very different. Faulkners style of writing was very complex, in that he used many words, long sentences, and a lot of emotion; where as his counterpart used no emotion at all. The complexity of his writing style reflects the fact that his themes are often very complex as well. Though the meaning of his stories is much easier to see, readers may often become discouraged with his lengthy and complex story telling. “I believe that man will not merely endure. He will prevail. He is immortal, not because he alone among creatures has an inexhaustible voice, but because he has a soul, a spirit capable of compassion and sacrifice and endurance.” (Faulkner)
? ? ?  Ernest Hemingway and William Faulkner both received the Nobel Prize in Literature. Though Faulkner received his a few years before Hemingway, this says little or nothing about Hemingways stature relative to that of Faulkner. In fact, their vast differences are what them both unique and distinguished writers. With Hemingways style being simple and to the point, and Faulkner??™s was being complicated and with excessive detail, they both managed to write in a manner that creates a clear picture for their readers. This is why both writers continue to receive the respect they deserve. It is up to the reader as to which style they prefer, and only then can the writing be truly appreciated.Works Cited:

How Immigrants Are Discriminated in the Business World

In surveying 4,387 workers in various low-wage industries, including apparel
manufacturing, child care and Studies have found that nearly three in every ten Hispanic workers feel they have been
discriminated against their employment. Some report being referred to with racial slurs at
work, while one in four feel they are paid less and have reduced career advancement prospects
than their Caucasian counterparts. In many organizations, there is a scarcity of Hispanics,
Latinos and Mexican-Americans in management positions. FBI statistics show a dramatic
increase in anti-Hispanic hate crimes. And sadly, hate groups are increasing due to anti-illegal
immigration concerns. A symbol to many Hispanics, Latinos and Mexican-Americans is the
construction of the U.S.- Mexico border fence which is actually several separation barriers
designed to prevent illegal movement of goods and people across the U.S. and Mexico border.

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While much of the purported reasoning for the multi-billion dollar fence was based on
preventing the entry of terrorists into the country, many feel that reasoning is flawed while our
border with Canada remains open. While the efforts have also been aimed at stopping the flow of
drugs into the U.S., a secondary effort is to prevent the flow of weapons bought in the U.S. and
smuggled into Mexico. The fence will not stop illegal immigration along the border with
Mexico, although it may help prevent those who are crossing illegally from blending
immediately into some town populations. However, the fence is not continuous and where there are gaps, surveillance technology must be utilized. And then, there remains the fear that tunnels
will be used even more extensively than in the past. A section of the barrier was even mistakenly
built inside Mexican territory requiring its removal and rebuilding at a cost of over three million
dollars. Over forty tunnels have been found since 2001 and some have been extremely
sophisticated. One such tunnel from Tijuana to San Diego was half a mile long, sixty to eighty
feet deep, and eight feet tall. It had drainage, electricity and a concrete floor, and its entrance
from the California side was in a modern warehouse. The entrance to the tunnel in Mexico was
in another building. The border with Mexico is 1,951 miles in length. The fence that is reportedly
nearing completion was only completed for approximately 600 miles in February 2009, when
news reports came out that the fence was nearly finished. As a result of the construction of the
barrier, there has now been an increase in the number of people trying to cross in such areas as
the Sonoran Desert and over the Baboquivari Mountain in Arizona where in fence exists. This
requires crossing 50 miles of inhospitable terrain to reach the Tohono Obdham Indian
Reservation, which many fear may lead to an increase in migrant deaths along the U.S.-Mexico
border if the smugglers try these more difficult routes. In the last thirteen years, there have been
around five thousand migrant deaths along the border. There is no excuse for discrimination in America. (Gibson, 2009)
discount retailing, the researchers found that the typical worker
had lost $51 the previous week through wage violations, out of average weekly earnings of $339.
That translates into a 15 percent loss in pay. The researchers said one of the most surprising
Findings was how successful low-wage employers were in pressuring workers not to file for
workers??™ compensation. Only 8 percent of those who suffered serious injuries on the job filed for
compensation to pay for medical care and missed days at work stemming from those injuries.
According to the study, 39 percent of those surveyed were illegal immigrants, 31 percent legal
immigrants and 30 percent native-born Americans. The study found that 26 percent of the
workers had been paid less than the minimum wage the week before being surveyed and that one
in seven had worked off the clock the previous week. In addition, 76 percent of those who had
worked overtime the week before were not paid their proper overtime. The study??™s authors noted
that many low-wage employers comply with wage and labor laws. The National Federation of
Independent Business, which represents small-business owners, said it encouraged members ???to
stay in compliance with state and federal labor laws.??? But many small businesses say they are forced to violate wage laws to remain competitive. The study found that women were far more
likely to suffer minimum wage violations than men, with the highest prevalence among women
who were illegal immigrants. Among American-born workers, African-Americans had a
violation rate nearly triple that for whites. ???When unscrupulous employers break the law, they??™re
robbing families of money to put food on the table, they??™re robbing communities of spending
power and they??™re robbing governments of vital tax revenues.??? The report found that 57 percent
of workers sampled had not received mandatory pay documents the previous week, which are
intended to help make sure pay is legal and accurate. Of workers who receive tips, 12 percent
said their employers had stolen some of the tips. One in five workers reported having lodged a
complaint about wages to their employer or trying to form a union in the previous year, and 43
percent of them said they had experienced some form of illegal retaliation, like firing or
suspension. In instances when workers??™ compensation should have been used, one third of
workers injured on the job paid the bills for treatment out of their own pocket and 22 percent
used their health insurance. Workers??™ compensation insurance paid medical expenses for only 6
percent of the injured workers surveyed. (Greenhouse, 2009)
Big business benefits from cheap, immigrant labor which it exploits with low wages and poor working conditions. Lax immigration policies in general, and unenforced employer
sanctions in particular, allow businesses like the garment and food service industries to recruit
and hire undocumented workers. The low wages these businesses pay to immigrant labor
contribute to driving down the wages for Americans. (Political Research Associates, 2002)
It turns out that the continuing arrival of immigrants to American shores is encouraging
business here, thereby producing more jobs, according to a new study. Its authors argue that the
easier it is to find cheap immigrant labor at home, the less likely that production will relocate
offshore. When companies move production offshore, they pull away not only low-wage jobs but
also many related jobs, which can include high-skilled managers, tech repairmen and others. But
hiring immigrants even for low-wage jobs helps keep many kinds of jobs in the U.S. In fact, when
immigration is rising as a share if employment in an economic sector, off shoring tends to be
falling, and vice versa. In other words, immigrants may be competing more with offshore
workers than with other laborers in America. We see the job-creating benefits of trade and
immigration everyday, even if we don??™t always recognize them. Low-skilled immigrants usually
fill gaps in American labor markets and generally enhance domestic business prospects rather
than destroy jobs; this occurs because of an important phenomenon, the presence of what are known as ???complementary??? workers, namely those who add value to the work of others. An
immigrant will often take a job as a construction worker, a drywall installer or a taxi driver, for
example, while native-born worker may end up being promoted to supervisor. And as
immigrants succeed here, they help the U.S. develop strong business and social networks with
the rest of the world, making it easier for us to do business with India, Brazil and most other
countries, again creating more jobs. We are all worried about unemployment, but the problem is
usually rooted in macroeconomic conditions, not in immigration or off shoring. The number of
illegal immigrants from the Caribbean and Latin America fell 22 percent from 2007 to 2009;
their departure has not had much effect on the weak U.S. job market. Each immigrant consumes
products sold here, therefore also helping to create jobs. When it comes to immigration, positive-
sum thinking is too often absent in public discourse these days. Debates on immigration and
labor markets reflect some common human cognitive failings-namely, that we are quicker to
vilify groups of different ???others??? than we are to blame impersonal forces. Consider the fears that
foreign competition, off shoring and immigration have destroyed large numbers of American
jobs. In reality, more workers have probably been displaced by machines-as happens every time
computer software eliminates a task formerly performed by a clerical worker. Yet we know that machines and computers do the economy far more good than harm and that they create more jobs
than they destroy. Nonetheless, we find it hard to transfer this attitude to our dealings with
immigrants, no matter how logically similar ???cost saving machines??? and ???cost saving foreign
labor??? may be in their economic effects. Similarly, tariffs or other protectionist measures aimed
at foreign nations have a certain populist appeal, even though their economic effects may be
roughly the same as those caused by a natural disaster that closes shipping lanes or chokes off a
domestic harbor. As a nation, we spend far too much time and energy worrying about foreigners.
We also end up with more combative international relations with our economic partners, like
Mexico and China, than reason can justify. In turn, they are more economically suspicious of us
than they ought to be, which cements a negative dynamic into place. The current skepticism has
deadlocked prospects for immigration reform, even though no one is particularly happy with the
status quo. Against that trend, we should be looking to immigration as a creative force in our
economic favor. Allowing in more immigrants, skilled and unskilled, wouldn??™t just create jobs. It
could increase tax revenue, help finance Social Security, bring new home buyers and improve
the business environment. The world economy will most likely grow more open, and we should
be prepared to compete. That means recognizing the benefits-including the employment benefits-those immigrants bring to this country. (Cowen, 2010)

Contrast Between Chinese Greetings and English Greetings

Contrast Between Chinese Greetings and English Greetings
Abstract:As is known to all, greeting is not only an integral part of the language, but also an important part of social etiquette. It is used frequently in daily life. In daily communication, appropriate greetings manners is the key to establishing and maintaining interpersonal relationships. Since China is totally different from the Western countries both in its history and its culture, it is undoubtedly that greeting, which is closely related to the cross-culture interactions, may easily lead to misunderstanding. Understanding the differences in Chinese and English greeting well can avoid misunderstandings in cross-cultural communication. In this paper, we shall focus attention on study the similarities and differences in Chinese and English greetings.
Key Words: greeting, English, Chinese, cultural differences, cross-cultural communication
As China enters WTO, the relationship between China and other English-speaking countries become closer and closer. Because of the negligence of the strategies in cross-cultural communication, a lot of misunderstandings appear. It is necessary for us to learn more about cross-cultural communication and greeting differences. So how to start a perfect communication becomes so important nowadays. Since greetings occur among people all over the world, it appears to be a wonderful component of social behavior. To understand cultural differences in greetings better will definitely make a great improvement of human relations in cross-cultural communications.

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Greetings are used to establish a communication or maintain social contact. It is a very important component in social etiquette. It is also one of the cultural blocks in cross-cultural communication. To know much about the greeting differences can enhance our cross-cultural communication. A contrast between English and Chinese greetings helps people to promote their cross-cultural awareness. Greetings, as a phenomenon of language, are closely related with culture. They occur among people all over the world and appear to be an excellent unit of social behavior to study if one intends to make a contrastive study on what is universal, what is traditional, and what is distinctive in inter-cultural communications. A better understanding of cultural differences in greetings will surely boost the maintenance and improvement of human relations in cross-cultural communications. Since greetings are so important, the present thesis tries to analyze the common properties and differences between Chinese and English greetings as well as the factors causing these differences. In this thesis, Leech??™s Polite Principles as well as Brown and Levinson??™s Face Theory are applied. However, Chinese politeness has its own specifics, thus Gu Yueguo??™s theory are also applied to analyze Chinese greetings. The thesis consists of five parts. The introduction gives a general view of the thesis. Chapter 1 reviews theories related to greetings. Chapter 2 mainly discusses the functions of greetings and various categories to classify them such as time, formality, contents, social settings and language origin. Chapter 3 tries to give a comparison between Chinese and English greeting including their common properties and differences and explores the causes of these differences from the aspects of cultural factors and social factors. The conclusion is the summary of the thesis.
Chapter 1
Theories Related to Greetings
Greeting is an important way for communication. It is crucial for the establishment of social relationships. As a special part of politeness phenomenon, greetings have been studied by scholars both in English culture and Chinese culture. However, because of the cultural differences, sometimes what the Chinese people consider to be polite may not be true according to western culture. But anthropologists and linguists have been trying to generate models that could be applied to different cultures. Among them,the most influential ones are by Leech (1983), Brown and Levinson (1978), each of which c1aims their universa1ity. And in China, Gu Yueguo (1990) proposed five notions of politeness based on the Chinese conception of li mao. In the following Part,the writer would look close1y at these po1iteness systems.
1.1 Leech??™s Politeness Principles
1.2 Brown and Levinson??™s Face Theory
1.3 Gu Yueguo??™s Theory Related to Chinese Culture
Chapter 2
The Functions and Classification of Greetings
2.1 The Functions of Greetings
2.1.1 Greetings as Linguistic Routines of Politeness
Greetings, in fact, should not be treated as spontaneous emotional reaction, for most of them are highly conventionalized and follow patterned routines. Laver (1981: 299-305) makes a further study of the rationale for the existence of routine elements such as greetings in the linguistic patterns of conversation. He asserts that routine behavior is polite behavior. Greetings as conversational routines are part of the linguistic repertoire of politeness. They are tools of polite behavior and their use is guided by a polite norm.
2.1.2 Greetings as Illocutionary Acts
2.2 The Classification of Greetings
2.2.1 Greetings Classified According to Time
2.2.2 Greetings Classified According to Formality
2.2.3 Greetings Classified According to Content
2.2.4 Greetings Classified According to Social Settings
2.2.5 Greetings Classified According to Origin
Chapter 3
Similarities and Differences between Chinese and English Greetings
3.1 Common Properties of Chinese and English Greetings
3.1.1 Greetings Concerning Reciprocal Nature
3.1.2 Greetings Concerning Topics
3.2 Differences between Chinese and English Greetings
3.2.1 Differences in Contents
The content of Chinese greetings is concrete and concerns facts, whereas English greetings covers a lot of topics and do not involve facts. One remarkable property of Chinese greeting is that it usually takes personal matters as greeting topics. Chinese people usually inquire others??™ age, income, and marriage, which actually are very public topics. Moreover, the more details one inquires, the more consideration he shows for the addressee. In Chinese culture, four specific sentences occur more frequently among people based on where and when they meet. They are ??! (How do you do), ????? (Are you busy today) ???? (Where are you going) ??? (Have you eaten yet) Response to ???????? is its repetition ????????. However, responses to the other greetings are normally answers on the basis of the real circumstance or position the addressee is in at the moment he/she is greeted. ??! (How do you do) is often used as a greeting among people who do not know each other or know one another but not very well, especially in the normal situation. For example: A teacher in languages department meets a teacher in history department on their way to work.
3.2.2 Differences in Terms of Address
3.2.3 Differences in Semantic
Another difference of greetings between English and Chinese lies in semantics. Differences in semantics conveyed by routine expressions in English and Chinese greeting processes suggest that what is counted as polite in one language may not be considered so in another. A story is told that one American English teacher in China complained to authorities of a university that he was often asked about where he was going and what he was doing, sometimes even by persons he did not know. He felt that his privacy was intruded until the Chinese foreign affairs officers explained that in terms of Chinese greeting behavior this is a perfectly normal greeting routine.
3.2.4 Differences in Syntax
3.2.5 Differences in Cooperative Responses
3.3 Factors Causing the Differences
3.3.1 Cultural Factors
Privacy is cherished in all cultures, but it is more highly cherished in the English culture. Members of individualistic cultures tend to engage in environmental to assert their unique identity and to claim private space than members of collectivistic cultures do. The Chinese attach great importance to mutual care, which is equally important as modesty. For example, the Chinese sometimes like to make direct comments on some personal matters or to give direct advice to show concern for other??™ welfare. Gu Yueguo has rightly included ???attitudinal warmth???, a highly valued trait in Chinese culture, as one of the four notions underlying the Chinese conception of Limao. Showing warmth and concern is regarded as a polite act in the Chinese culture. That??™s why when two Chinese meet each other even for the fist time they might ask each other??™s age, marital status, offspring, occupation and income. This conflicts with the people??™s individual privacy of English culture. Native speakers of English have such a strong sense of privacy that they are easily offended by comments which seem to invade their personal lives. ???Where are you going??? such kind of greeting is particularly distasteful to them. Many foreign teachers in China complain that their room attendants are spies because the attendants have greeted them with ???where are you going???. The Chinese think that they are being polite by showing concern for the other person. But the effects are against their good intentions. In the Chinese culture, it is not considered impolite but an indication of concern and kindness. But if western speakers were asked all such questions, they would feel their interactants are rudely infringing upon their privacy.
3.3.2 Social Fact
Greeting is a daily practice that is reutilized and happens at very low levels of awareness in cross-cultural interactions. However, we can find it very problematic in cross-culture communications. When it is used improperly, misunderstandings may occur. For example, if a Chinese student greets an American one with ???Have you eaten yet???, he would be considered to be going to invite the American students to dinner. This is because greetings are not only a part of language, but also a part of culture. There is a gap between the language and culture in the intercultural communication. In this thesis, a contrastive analysis is made of such linguistic routines as greetings in English and Chinese. The functions of greetings are reviewed. The differences of greetings in the two languages are investigated. The causes of these differences are also explored. It is found that Leechs Politeness Principle as well as Brown and Levinsons Face Theory are not so adaptable in the Chinese context and Chinese politeness has its own characteristics. Although the choice of linguistic routines is generally constrained by common social factors, theactual use may vary from person to person and from language to language. Through the contrastive analysis of greetings in Chinese and English communication, a comprehensive knowledge of culture-specific norm of politeness as well as its linguistic realization (e.g. greetings) is claimed to be crucial. Now, with the development of globalization, cross-cultural communication becomes more and more important. In this world with a diversity of cultures, there are no cultures superior or inferior to another. But there are real differences between groups and cultures. Therefore, it is highly necessary to make cross-cultural studies of greetings in English and Chinese, which contributes much to enhancing the mutual-understanding across different cultures and avoiding potential offence and insult in cross-cultural communication.
First,1would like to express my sincere gratitude to

How I Spend My Weekends – Kukua Agyemang Sereboo

I wake up early on Saturdays, due to the noise made by the garbage truck in the morning. First, I soak all of my white clothes and then get ready for tennis practice. I leave the house around six o??™clock. I play tennis till I drop, which is usually around nine o??™clock.
When I get back home, I wash my dirty clothes, take a shower and head for my grandmother??™s house.
There, I help her tend to her garden, run errands for her and sometimes we bake together. I eat lunch at her house. Before I get home, I usually pass by the bakery to get some pastries for the house, that is, if granny didn??™t give me some goodies to bring home.
When I get home, I do my homework and then go for choir rehearsal at church. After that I hang out with my colleagues till it gets dark. I then go home and get ready for church. On an uneventful Saturday, I go to bed at nine.
On Sunday, I go to church with my parents. Church??™s really cool, but the part I love most is when the choir sings (well I like it mostly because I??™m part of the choir). Sunday lunch has been declared family time for as long as I can remember. All my aunts, uncles, cousins and other family members come over and we have a huge picnic.
After lunch I play with my cousins until it??™s time for them to go home. I then get ready for the next day, which is Monday. I love weekends.


AFTERMATH 2220 Colorado Blvd, Santa Monica, CA 90404 Phone: 310-865-7642 Fax:310-865-7068 CONTACT: Andre Young/Dr Dre Mike Lynn/ A&R Angelo Sanders/A&RAMERICAN RECORDINGS P.O Box 60234 Chicago IL 60660 Phone: 773-973-7736 Fax: 773-973-2088 A&R: Rick Rubin Dino ParedesBAD BOY RECORDS 1710 Broadway 16th Floor New York, NY 10018 Phone: 212-381-1540 A&R HarvePierre/ A&R Sean Combs, Shannon Lawrence, Conrad DimancheDef Jam Recordings PO BOX 78386 Atanta, GA 30357 Phone: 404-351-7387 A&R: Scarface Doggy Style Records 2220 Colorado Avenue Santa Monica, CA 90404 Phone: 310-865-4500 Fax: 310-865-1406 A&R: Frank CooperDisturbing tha peace 1867 7th Avenue Suite 4C New York, NY 10026 Phone: 404-351-7387 A&R: Ken BaileyJIVE (BMG) 8750 Wilshire Blvd. Beverly Hills, CA 90211 Phone: 310-358-4200 A&R Pablo Mathiason/ Director A&RJ Records (BMG) 745 5th Avenue, 6th fl. New York, NY 10151 Phone: 646-840-5600 A&R: Larry Jackson, Hosh Gurell, James Diener Island-Def Jam 825 8th Ave. 29th flr. NY, NY 10019 Phone: 212-333-8000 Fax: 212-603-7654 Diana Fragnito, Rob Stevenson, Karen KwakRoc-A-Fella Records 825 8th Avenue 29th Floor New York, NY 10019 Phone: 212-333-8000 Fax: 212-445-3616 A&R: Shalik Berry, Shawn Carter, Damon DashRuff Ryder Ent. 12 West 21st street 7th floor New York, NY 10010 Phone: 212-675-5840 www.ruffryders.comShady Records 151 Lafayette Street New York, NY 10013 Phone: 212-324-2410 Fax: 212-324-2415 A&R: Marc Labelle, Riggs Morales, Marshall Mathers The Inc Records 825 8th Avenue 29th Floor New York, NY 10019 Phone: 212-333-1330 Fax: 212-445-3662 A&R: Irv GottiTVT Records 23 East 4th Street 3rd Floor New York, NY 10003 Phone: 212-979-6410 Fax: 212-979-6489 A&R: Bryan Leach/VP

How I Spend My Pocket Money for a 9 Year Old

Form Abstract Nouns from the following.
man? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?  scholar? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?  king? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 
know? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?  sell? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?  think
long? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?  strong? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?  wise
brother? ? ? ? ? ?  lose? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?  great
Click here for the answer
|man – manhood |scholar – scholarship |king – kingdom |
|know – knowledge |sell – sale |think – thought |
|long – length |strong – strength |wise – wisdom |
|brother – brotherhood |lose – loss |great – greatness |? 
Fill in the blank s with suitable collective nouns.
??? 1. A _____ of birds flew high in the sky.
flock / flight
flock / flight
??? 2. They saw a _____ of lions at the zoo.
pride / troop
pride / troop
??? 3. The farmer has a _____ of cattle on his farm.
herd / drove
herd / drove
??? 4. He ate a _____ of grapes today.
??? 5. Our friend shows us a _____ of stamps.
??? 6. We saw a _____ of sheep on our way home.
??? 7. Police have arrested a _____ of thieves.
pack / gang
pack / gang
??? 8. She bought a _____ of bananas from the market.
bunch / comb
bunch / comb
??? 9. The _____ of pupils are listening attentively to their teacher.
??? 10. You can put the _____ of tools in that box.
Complete each sentence by choosing the correct word.
??? 1. There is so (many, much) smoke coming out of the chimney.
??? 2. There are (plenty of, a large amount of) fish in the pond write narrative essay for me.
Plenty of
plenty of
??? 3. (A little, A few) minutes is all it takes for him to shave.
A few
A few
??? 4. The postman put (a great deal of, a lot of) letters into the bag.
A lot of
a lot of
??? 5. He threw (a little, some) nuts to the monkeys.
??? 6. She uses only (a few, a little) cooking oil in her cooking.
A little
a little
??? 7. My hens lay (a large amount of, several) eggs very day.
??? 8. (A great deal of, A large number of) dust has collected on the desk.
A great deal of
A great deal of
??? 9. We saw (a large amount of, many) cows grazing in the field.
??? 10. The butcher sells (a large amount of, a large number of) meat.
A large amount of
a large amount of
?  ? 
( 1.6)? ?  EXERCISE – GENDER
Change the nouns in bold from the feminine to the masculine.
??? 1. My aunt visits her niece every week-end.
My uncle visits his nephew every week-end.
My uncle visits his nephew every week-end.
??? 2. The lady has several mares on her farm.
The gentleman has several stallions on his farm.
The gentleman has several stallions on his farm.
??? 3. The daughter is more talkative than her mother.
The son is more talkative than his father.
The son is more talkative than his father.
??? 4. Does any actress like to play the role of the princess
Does any actor like to play the role of the prince
Does any actor like to play the role of the prince
??? 5. Their queen is a widow.
Their king is a widower.
Their king is a widower.
??? 6. The manageress is still a spinster.
The manager is still a bachelor.
The manager is still a bachelor.
??? 7. In the movie, the tigress was killed by the heroine.
In the movie, the tiger was killed by the hero.
In the movie, the tiger was killed by the hero.
??? 8. His daughter-in-law is a postmistress.
His son-in-law is a postmaster.
His son-in-law is a postmaster.
??? 9. The countess has one sister.
The count has one brother.
The count has one brother.
??? 10. The authoress is writing a book about the empress.
The author is writing a book about the emperor.The author is writing a book about the emperor.

Change the nouns in bold from the masculine to the feminine.
??? 11. The bridegroom thanked the priest.
The bride thanked the priestess.
The bride thanked the priestess.
??? 12. His brother works as a waiter.
His sister works as a waitress.
His sister works as a waiteress.
??? 13. The dog barked at the milkman.
The bitch barked at the milkmaid.
The bitch barked at the milkmaid.
??? 14. A cock was killed by a fox.
A hen was killed by a vixen.
A hen was killed by a vixen.
??? 15. The manservant has worked many years for the duke.
The maidservant has worked many years for the duchess.
The maidservant has worked many years for the duchess.
??? 16. Her husband is a conductor.
His wife is a conductress.
His wife is a conductress.
??? 17. He was a postman before he became a postmaster.
She was a postwoman before she became a postmistress.
She was a postwoman before she became a postmistress.
??? 18. The lad wants to be a monk.
The lass wants to be a nun.
The lass wants to be a nun.
??? 19. The sultan owns a stallion.
The sultana owns a mare.
The sultana owns a mare.
??? 20. Her father-in-law is a landlord.
Her mother-in-law is a landlady.Her mother-in-law is a landlady.

Fill in the blanks with abstract nouns from the nouns in brackets.
??? 1. I had a very happy ______ (child).
I had a very happy childhood.
I had a very happy childhood.
??? 2. I forgot to renew my _____ (member) in the sailing club.
I forgot to renew my membership in the sailing club.
I forgot to renew my membership in the sailing club.
??? 3. We formed a deep and lasting _____ (friend).
We formed a deep and lasting friendship.
We formed a deep and lasting friendship.
??? 4. He hopes to take over the _____ (leader) of the party.
He hopes to take over the leadership of the party.
He hopes to take over the leadership of the party.
??? 5. There are lots of nice people in the _____ (neighbour).
There are lots of nice people in the neighbourhood.
There are lots of nice people in the neighbourhood.
??? 6. In the _____ (king) of Thailand, the king commands the respect of every citizen.
In the kingdom of Thailand, the king commands the respect of every citizen.
In the kingdom of Thailand, the king commands the respect of every citizen.
??? 7. She seems to be enjoying _____ (mother).
She seems to be enjoying motherhood.
She seems to be enjoying motherhood.
??? 8. He had barely reached _____ (man) when he married.
He had barely reached manhood when he married.( 2)?  VERBS? 
Verbs are words that show action. Every sentence must have a verb. A verb is not always one word. It may be made up of more than one word.Auxiliary verbsThe words: am, is, are, was, and were are verbs. They are forms of the verb ???to be??™. They are helping verbs called auxiliary verbs.? 
If the subject of a sentence is singular, the verb must be singular. If the subject of a sentence is plural, the verb must be plural. The verb must agree with the subject in number.
Examples of ???subjects??™ and ???verbs??™ being singular: The man is sleeping. She goes to the market. The student does his homework every day. The train has arrived.? 
???Man??™, ???she??™, ???student??™ and ???train??™ are known as subjects.The subjects are all singular.The verbs ???is??™, ???goes??™, ???does??™ and ???has??™ are all singular too.? 
Examples of ???subjects??™ and ???verbs??™ being plural: The men are sleeping. They go to the market. The students do their homework every day. The trains have arrived.? 
???Men??™, ???they??™, ???students??™ and ???trains??™ are known as subjects. The subjects are all plural. The verbs ???are??™, ???go??™, ???do??™ and ???have??™ are all plural too.? 
|?  |Singular subject/verb |Plural subject/verb |
|1st |I |
|?  |Every child is happy watching the show. |
|?  |Nobody is allowed to walk on the grass. |? ?¦? ? ? ? ? ? ?  Uncountable nouns always take singular verbs.
|Examples: |Rice is eaten in many countries. |
|?  |There is oil on the floor. |
|?  |Salt is added to make the food taste better. |?¦? ? ? ? ? ? ?  Subjects with words like ???both??™, ???all??™, ???many??™, ???some??™, ???several??™ and ???a number of??™ take on a plural verb.
|Examples: |Both of you have to come home early. |
|?  |All of us want to be happy. |
|?  |Some of my friends are female. |? ?¦? ? ? ? ? ? ?  Two or more subjects joined by ???and??™ always take a plural verb.
|Examples: |My brother and his friends like to play football. |
|?  |His father and mother are watching television. |? Transitive and intransitive verbsThe verb which needs an object to make its meaning clear or complete is called a transitive verb.
Example: He feeds a cat. The word ???cat??™ is called the object of the verb ???feeds??™. The object can be? a noun or a pronoun.? 
The intransitive verb does not need an object but the meaning is clear or complete.
Example: He ran. The verb ???ran??™ does not need an object.? She reads every day. (No object) He eats quickly. (No object)The Finite verbThe finite verb changes with the subject. The subject is the person, thing, animal or place we refer to. When the subject is in the first or second person or is plural, the verb does not change. When the subject is in the third person or is singular, the verb changes from, say, ???eat??™ to ???eats??™. The verb ???eat??™ is a finite verb. Every sentence must have a finite verb.
|Subject |Singular subject |Plural subject |? |
|First Person |I eat |We eat |? |
|Second Person |You eat |You eat |? |
|Third Person |He eats |They eat |? |
|Third Person |She eats |They eat |? |
|Third Person |It eats |They eat |? |
|The pen/s |The pen is |The pens are |? |
|The elephant/s |The elephant does |The elephants do not |
|The house/s |The house has |The houses have |? The InfinitiveThe infinitive is a verb that is followed by ???to??™ and does not change with the subject.
|Subject |Singular Subject |Plural Subject |
|First Person |I want to play. |We want to play. |
|Second Person |You want to play. |You want to play. |
|Third Person |He wants to play. |They want to play. |
|?  |She wants to play. |They want to play. |
|?  |It wants to play. |They want to play. |The infinitive can take on an object. For example: He likes to read book. (To read = infinitive; book = object).Other usage of verbs to remember1.? ? ? ? ? ? ?  When ???and??? is used to join two nouns or pronouns together, the verb is usually in the plural.
|? Examples: |Beef and mutton are meat. |
|?  |He and I were classmates. |
| |?  |? 2.? ? ? ? ? ? ?  When we use two nouns for the same person or thing, the verb should be in the singular.
|Examples: |My friend and classmate is very helpful. |
|?  |Bread and butter is his only food. |
| |?  |? 3.? ? ? ? ? ? ?  When we use two nouns for the same person, we use the article ???the??™ only once and the verb should be in the singular.
|Example: |The shopkeeper and owner of the shop is my uncle. |
| |?  |? 4.? ? ? ? ? ? ?  When we refer to two different persons, we use the article twice and the verb must be in the plural.
|Example: |The shopkeeper and the owner of the shop are my good friends. |
| |?  |? 5.? ? ? ? ? ? ?  When we join two nouns and treat them as a whole, the verb?  is in the singular.
|Example: |Bread and butter is his usual breakfast. |
| |?  |? 6.? ? ? ? ? ? ?  When a noun is a quantity or an amount, it is treated as a whole and the verb is in the singular.
|Examples: |Ten kilometers is not a long way to travel. |
|?  |Nowadays, fifty dollars is not a lot of money. |
| |?  |? A verb is used in different forms as follow:
|Simple Present Tense |eat |
|Simple Past Tense |ate |
|Present Particle |is eating |
|Past Particle |has eaten |
|Future Tense |will eat |? THE PRESENT TENSE
1.? ? ? ? ? ? ?  The Present Simple
?? ? ? ? ? ? ?  Used for a habitual or repeated action, that is, for something that we do always, every day, often, usually, etc.
|Example: |He plays football on Sundays. |
| |?  |? ?? ? ? ? ? ? ?  Used for a general truth or a fact, that is, for something that is true.
|Example: |Night follows day. |
| |?  |? ?? ? ? ? ? ? ?  Used for something or an action happening now.
|Example: |See how she walks. |
| |?  |? ?? ? ? ? ? ? ?  Used instead of the future tense.
|Example: |He arrives tomorrow. |
| |?  |? ?? ? ? ? ? ? ?  Used instead of the past tense, to make something look more real.
|Example: |The tiger comes; it catches the boy. |
| |?  |? ?? ? ? ? ? ? ?  Used instead of the present perfect tense.
|Example: |We hear that the king is dead. |
| |?  |? ?? ? ? ? ? ? ?  Used to introduce a quotation, that is, to repeat words spoken or written by someone else.
|Example: |Shakespeare says: ???Neither a borrower nor a lender be.??? |
| |?  |? 2.? ? ? ? ? ? ?  The Present Continuous Tense
?? ? ? ? ? ? ?  Used to show that something is still happening, that is, an action is still going on at the time of speaking. It shows that the action is not yet complete.
|Example: |He is writing a letter. |
| |?  |? ?? ? ? ? ? ? ?  Used instead of the future tense. We usually say the time when this future action will take place
|Example: |He is going to Japan next week. |
| |?  |? ?? ? ? ? ? ? ?  Used to use the phrase ???is going??™ which means ???about to??™.
|Example: |It is going to rain. |
| |?  |? ?? ? ? ? ? ? ?  Used to show an action which happens many times. We often use ???always??™ with this expression.
|Example: |He is always getting into trouble. |? 
? 3.? ? ? ? ? ? ?  The Present Perfect Tense
?? ? ? ? ? ? ?  Used to show an action which has just been completed or a past action when the time is not mentioned. The action may be a recent one or it may be one which happened a long time ago.
|Example: |I have finished reading the book. |
| |There have been many changes in this country. |
| |?  |? ?? ? ? ? ? ? ?  Used for an action that has been going on from the past until now, that is, something that happened in the past but is going on still.
|Example: |I have lived here for ten years. |
| |?  |? ?? ? ? ? ? ? ?  Used often with ???just??™, ???already??™, ???recently??™, ???never??™, ???yet??™ and (in questions) with ???ever??™.
|Example: |I have already told them about the plan |
| |She has never replied to my letter. |
| |Have you ever been to London |? ?? ? ? ? ? ? ?  Used often to answer questions which contain a verb in the Present Perfect tense.
|Example: |Where have you been I? have been to London to see the Queen. |
| |What have you lost I have lost all my money.?  |? 4.? ? ? ? ? ? ?  The Present Perfect Continuous Tense
?? ? ? ? ? ? ?  Used for an action just completed or continued up to now.
|Example: |He has been talking for an hour. |? THE PAST TENSE
1.? ? ? ? ? ? ?  The Past Simple Tense
?? ? ? ? ? ? ?  Used to describe a completed past action when the time of the action is mentioned.
|Example: |I went to the cinema yesterday. |
| |?  |? ?? ? ? ? ? ? ?  Used to show for a past action that was completely done in the past.
|Example: |My mother made a cake and we all ate it. |
| |?  |? ?? ? ? ? ? ? ?  Used to express a habitual past action.
|Example: |He always came home late. |
| |?  |? 2.? ? ? ? ? ? ?  The Past Continuous Tense
?? ? ? ? ? ? ?  Used for an action that was going on in the past when something else happened.
|Example: |While they were watching television, the light went out. |
| |?  |? ?? ? ? ? ? ? ?  Used to show an action that was going on at a certain time in the past.
|Example: |I was eating my dinner at 7 o??™clock last night. |
| |?  |? ?? ? ? ? ? ? ?  Used for two actions that were going on at the same time in the past.
|Example: |While his father was reading the newspaper, his mother was cooking. |
| |?  |? 3.? ? ? ? ? ? ?  The Past Perfect Tense
?? ? ? ? ? ? ?  Used for an action that was completed before another action took place.
|Example: |I had left the house before he arrived. |
| |?  |? ?? ? ? ? ? ? ?  Used in the Indirect or Reported Speech.
|Example: |???I have read the book???. He said that he had read the book. |
| |?  |? 4.? ? ? ? ? ? ?  The Past Perfect Continuous Tense
?? ? ? ? ? ? ?  Used for an action that had been going on in the past before another action occurred in the past.
|Example: |She had been cooking when we visited her. |
The Future Tense is used to show some action or happening in the future. Future Simple + ???Going To???
1.? ? ? ? ? ? ?  Simple Future Tense is used to show future action or that something will happen in the future.
|Example: |We will complete the work tomorrow. |
| |?  |? 2.? ? ? ? ? ? ?  ???Going to??™ is used to express a future action that has been planned in advance.
|Example: |We are going to Japan next week. |
| |?  |? 3.? ? ? ? ? ? ?  Future Continuous Tense? is used to show continuous action at some future time.
|Example: |I shall be seeing both of you tomorrow. |
| |?  |? 4.? ? ? ? ? ? ?  Future Perfect Tense is used for an action which will have finished by some future time or date which is mentioned or before another action has begun.
|Example: |I shall have finished this job by seven o??™clock. |
| |I shall have finished this job by the time you arrive. |
| |?  |? 5.? ? ? ? ? ? ?  Future Perfect Continuous Tense.? This continuous tense is formed with ???shall/will have been??™ + a present particle.
|Example: |I shall have been married for exactly ten years next Saturday. ||( 2.1)?  EXERCISE – AUXILIARY VERBS |
|Fill in the blanks with ???is or ???are. |
|1. The rose _____ a beautiful flower. |
|The rose is a beautiful flower. |
|The rose is a beautiful flower. |
|2. His two sons _____ still small. |
|His two sons are still small. |
|His two sons are still small. |
|3. My brother _____ doing his degree at that university. |
|My brother is doing? his degree at that university. |
|My brother is doing? his degree at that university. |
|4. Dogs _____ the most faithful animals. |
|Dogs are the most faithful animals. |
|Dogs are the most faithful animals. |
|5. There _____ a lot of ants on the tree. |
|There are a lot of ants on the tree. |
|There are a lot of ants on the tree. |
|6. That chair _____ comfortable to sit on. |
|That chair is comfortable to sit on. |
|That chair is comfortable to sit on. |
|7. The equator _____ an imaginary line round the earth. |
|The equator is an imaginary line round the earth. |
|The equator is an imaginary line round the earth. |
|8. The natives of this island _____ a friendly people. |
|The natives of this island are a friendly people. |
|The natives of this island are a friendly people. |
|9. We _____ waiting for the bus. |
|We are waiting for the bus. |
|We are waiting for the bus. |
|10. _____ your mother sleeping now |
|Is your mother sleeping now |
|Is your mother sleeping now |
|?  |
|Fill in the blanks with ???does or ???do. |
|11. _____ you know him |
|Do you know him |
|Do you know him |
|12. That _____ not mean I _____ not like her. |
|That does not mean I do not like her. |
|That does not mean I do not like her. |
|13. Please _____ not smoke here. |
|Please do not smoke here. |
|Please do not smoke here. |
|14. _____ anybody know the answer |
|Does anybody know the answer |
|Does anybody know the answer |
|15. They _____ not want to play. |
|They do not want to play. |
|They do not want to play. |
|16. It _____ not matter where you put it. |
|It does not matter where you put it. |
|It does not matter where you put it. |
|17. He _____ the measuring and we _____ the cutting. |
|He does the measuring and we do the cutting. |
|He does the measuring and we do the cutting. |
|18. Those sheep _____ not belong to that farmer. |
|Those sheep do not belong to that farmer. |
|Those sheep do not belong to that farmer. |
|19. My feet _____ not get tired easily. |
|My feet do not get tired easily. |
|My feet do not get tired easily. |
|20. Everyone here _____ not know about it. |
|Everyone here does not know about it. |
|Everyone here does not know about it. |
|?  |
|Fill in the blanks with ???has or ???have. |
|21. He? _____ a law degree. |
|He has a law degree. |
|He has a law degree. |
|22. They _____ gone to the cinema. |
|They have gone to the cinema. |
|They have gone to the cinema. |
|23. Only one of the students _____ failed the test. |
|Only one of the students has failed the test. |
|Only one of the students has failed the test. |
|24. I _____ come here to borrow your book |
|I have come here to borrow your book. |
|I have come here to borrow your book. |
|25. “_____ you ever done online banking” |
|”Have you ever done online banking” |
|”Have you ever done online banking” |
|26. “We _____ not done our homework yet.” |
|”We have not done our homework yet.” |
|”We have not done our homework yet.” |
|27. Each of you _____ to pay a dollar. |
|Each of you has to pay a dollar. |
|Each of you has to pay a dollar. |
|28. There _____ been no complaint so far. |
|There has been no complaint so far. |
|There has been no complaint so far. |
|29. Does he _____ a bicycle |
|Does he have a bicycle |
|Does he have a bicycle |
|30. What _____ she got to say about this |
|What has she got to say about this |
|What has she got to say about this |
|?  |
|Choose the correct word for each sentence. |
|31. The earth _____ (go, goes) round the sun. |
|The earth goes round the sun. |
|The earth goes round the sun. |
|32. He _____ (go, goes) to school by bus. |
|He goes to school by bus. |
|He goes to school by bus. |
|33. I often _____ (go, goes) to the library. |
|I often go to the library. |
|I often go to the library. |
|34. She wants to _____ (go, goes) to the library |
|She wants to go to the library |
|She wants to go to the library |
|35. She does not _____ (go, goes) to the library |
|She does not go to the library |
|She does not go to the library |
|36. Oh, she does _____ (go, goes) to the library. |
|Oh, she does go to the library. |
|Oh, she does go to the library. |
|37. He often _____ (go, goes) to the cinema. |
|He often goes to the cinema. |
|He often goes to the cinema. |
|38. Every one of us must _____ (go, goes) to school. |
|Every one of us must go to school. |
|Every one of us must go to school. |
|39. Every one of us usually _____ (go, goes) to school early. |
|Every one of us usually goes to school early. |
|Every one of us usually goes to school early. |
|40. He too has to _____ (go, goes) to school. |
|He too has to go to school. |
|He too has to go to school. |
|?  |
|Choose the correct word for each sentence. |
|41. She _____ (read, reads) every day. |
|She reads every day. |
|She reads every day. |
|42. I _____ (drink, drinks) milk every day. |
|I drink milk every day. |
|I drink milk every day. |
|43. We _____ (like, likes) to swim. |
|We like to swim. |
|We like to swim. |
|44. My neighbours _____ (talk, talks) to us every day. |
|My neighbours talk to us every day. |
|My neighbours talk to us every day. |
|45. He _____ (speak, speaks) good English. |
|He speaks good English. |
|He speaks good English. |
|46. They _____ (work, works) in that factory. |
|They work in that factory. |
|They work in that factory. |
|47. One of us _____ (live, lives) near the hospital. |
|One of us lives near the hospital. |
|One of us lives near the hospital. |
|48. Those deer in the zoo _____ (look, looks) hungry. |
|Those deer in the zoo look hungry. |
|Those deer in the zoo look hungry. |
|49. Everyone of the postmen _____ (ride, rides) a bicycle. |
|Every one of the postmen rides a bicycle. |
|Every one of the postmen rides a bicycle. |
|50. The black dog can _____ (bark, barks) very loudly. |
|The black dog can bark very loudly. |
|The black dog can bark very loudly. |
|?  |

Contractionary and Expansionary Monetary Policy Paper

Federal Reserve??™s Contractionary and Expansionary
Monetary Policy
Tamara Thompson
University of Phoenix

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Among the economists such as Keynes and Samuelson, there was a strong belief that the relationship between low unemployment and permanent high growth shows inflation is high, and unemployment is exceptionally low (Landuyt, 2009, p. 1). The illustration of the Phillips Curve that shows when inflation is high, the unemployment is low (Figure 1).
(Table 1, Moffat, 2010)
The monetary policies come with an assumption that lower interest rates will actually encourage people and firms to spend and vice versa. These assumptions can be broken in case of a serious recession when everyone is busy saving for a rainy day or periods of a very high growth. The Fed can lower the rates but cannot force people to spend or banks to lend. It can also increase the rates, but if people think that the rates are not high enough, the economy will continue to grow (Bhaskar, 2009, p. 1).
Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco (2010). US Monetary Policy: How is the Fed
Structured Retrieved February 28, 2010. Retrieved from
Free Dictionary (2010). Free Online Dictionary. What is the definition of a Robust Economy.
Henderson, D. (1999). Individual Liberty, Free Markets, and Peace. Does Growth Cause
Inflation (Cato Policy Report, Vol. 21, No. 6, p. 1). Retrieved February 28, 2010.
Landuyt, G. (2009). The unemployment ??“ inflation theme. Givanomics (p. 1). Retrieved
Policy vs. Contractionary Monetary Policy. Guide. Retrieved February
Tiebreaker, T. (2010). What is the difference between contractionary and expansionary
Monetary policy (p. 7). Yahoo Answers. Retrieved February 28, 2010. Retrieved from
Watson, M. (2005). The Coming Economic Depression (now called the Political, Economical,
and Spiritual Review). Retrieved February 28, 2010. Retrieved from

How I Met Your Mother- Analysis

How I met your mother is an American sitcom that uses comedy to recount to his children in the year 2030, the events that lead the main character, Ted Mosby, to meeting his wife. However, this television series is a lot more than what it appears to be. We perceive throughout each episode a degrading trend that projects negative images of women. They are repeatedly marginalized as objects and are mostly spoken about in a harmful and debasing manner by one character, Barney Stinson. With the use of irony, the hegemonic view point of the white rich Christian male is excluded from the norm, equalitarian to sexes. Nonetheless, Barney??™s ideologies cause the most laughs and achieve dominance over the others.
First of all, in this television series woman are shown to be ???something of use???. This is to say that females are portrayed to be objects of male satisfaction. They are shown in revealing clothing that is not seen as sexual expression but as low class and slutty. This perspective is made clear to us by Barney??™s actions and the way he regards women. These images are chosen by the media to encode anti-feminist messages, consciously or subconsciously, that will allow men to remain at the apex of social hierarchy and continue this ideological cycle due to the viewer??™s socialization. The media is a business and by allowing these messages to remain in society, it becomes profitable to those who control this industry, the hegemonic male. Stuart Hall clearly supports this idea by his definition of the mass media. According to Hall, mass media is
???A complex structure in dominance??™ sustained through the articulation of connected practices, each of which retains its distinctiveness and its own specific modality, its own forms and conditions of existence.???In other words, figures in power will attempt without fail to broadcast a certain way of thinking that will be beneficiary to them and will allow them to keep their seat as socially dominant. For example, in one particular episode, Barney sets Ted up with a beautiful girl and Ted assumes that this woman is a prostitute because she is dressed in an open short dress. To Ted??™s surprise it turns out that she is a lawyer and a much respected one at that. In this particular scene, no astonishment is drawn at Ted??™s conclusion because this is what is expected of the viewer since society and media have taken over the public sphere and engraved these ideologies into individual??™s thought processes. Women are depicted as prostitutes if they express themselves with their clothing and thus, men remain in supremacy.
Second of all, women have fought for decades to achieve certain amount of liberation from sexist attitudes, comments and marginalisation. Although, feminist movements have seen a lot of success, negative and banal comments are projected in the media every day. In this show, women are often referred to as ???hoes??? and??? bitches??? without it causing nostalgia. Instead, humour is drawn from these appalling words when it is said not only by men but by women. However, men are rewarded for their sexual accomplishments and are not categorized by it. Deborah Cameron reinforces this point by stating:???[…] differentiation from one to another comes not through sexual attributes and status, but primarily through occupation, or attributes of general humanity, for example, decent, kind, honest, strong. Men remain men and women become specific categories in relation to men and to other categories.??? (Deborah Cameron, The feminist Critique of Language, 1990)In short, equality does not exist between men and women due to classification and language. Men are strengthened while woman are referred to in purgatory and demeaning terms. For example, in one of the episodes, Ted brings a girl to one an important event. His female friends go on by saying that these girls are ???sluts??? and they will always be disposed of the next day. The female sex is been looked on, in these shows by certain characters, as people to be forgotten and that have no true value, objects. Even women use detrimental linguistics that creates a bad image of their own sex. If women use this language to represent themselves or others, then what is expected of society Media organizes women into groups and categories and consequently, outlines these arrangements into society??™s thoughts. The masses allow this abasement to continue but only due to their upbringing in a media controlled world. Third of all, our society is surrounded mostly by one view point, hegemony. The white rich Christian man has been dictating our thoughts and individualities through media for the past century. With the rise of religion, the church members and the rich became the head of hierarchy. With the fall of monarchy, came a subtle rise of powerful figures replacing kings and queens. Media has become the playground of these men to push society to consume their thoughts and ideologies. In how I met your mother, Barney represents this hegemonic figure, assuming that money can buy women and he distributes his thoughts any chance he gets. His friends differ from him in the means of equality and justice. They regard Barney??™s actions and view points as disturbing and wrong. However, they do not punish him for his behaviour but laugh with him and even, sometimes, imitate his unlawful conduct. He is excluded from the norm that is his friends but seems, regardless, to rise above that and share his beliefs through humour, making them the dominant view point. Maria Black and Rosalind Coward state that ???In a society structured along a series of unequal divisions, there are clearly a number of groups who have power in relation to other groups: whites, men, managers.??? (Deborah Cameron, The feminist Critique of Language, 1990)
In brief, in this western civilization, the hegemonic white man??™s ideas and desires prevail over other group??™s beliefs. They are in control of the media and consequently, distribute their thoughts in society, creating more people that unconsciously are socialized to share these ideas.
What is most ironic about this situation is that the actor, who plays Barney Stinson, is the complete opposite from this character. Neil Patrick Harris, in reality, is an openly gay actor who differs completely from the typical masculine that he plays in this television series. “…I am happy to dispel any rumours or misconceptions and am quite proud to say that I am a very content gay man living my life to the fullest and feel most fortunate to be working with wonderful people in the business I love a lot.??? (, Wikipedia)
This quote displays the great distinction between Harris and Stinson because it clearly demonstrates a kind hearted artistic gay man that plays the role of an authoritarian capitalistic straight man. These contrasts create this evident irony and, as a viewer, bring to light the importance and the frequent manifestation of encoded images in our everyday lives. Also, even though the hegemonic view point that lowers feminine value is continuously present, it is constantly being made fun of by the distinction between the character and the actor. In conclusion, woman??™s rights have been around for only a few decades and feminists strive everyday to achieve a certain amount of freedom. Like Annette Kuhn says, knowledge is power and in order to succeed in the mission of equality, it is necessary that shows like these do not profuse images that create wrongful messages in our society. The knowledge that will serve us better is not one that should be shadowed by these encoded messages but one that will halt this type of media and allow humanity??™s progression towards equality.