Contribution as a Student to a University

ABC University has a reputation as having an excellent MBA program, so I know that if I apply and get accepted there, I will achieve first-class preparation for my chosen career. It is also a highly accredited school known for satisfying employers with the preparation of its graduates. In other words, the school produces top graduates by offering an excellent MBA background, which research shows equips graduates with numerous qualities, such as versatility and strong critical-thinking skills. Finally, after visiting the campus, I know that the business school emphasizes group projects, which will help me develop teamwork, communication, and interpersonal skills.As a student, I sincerely believe that Im the best person to refer to for my financial expertise background. I realize that there are many other college students who have the ability to help others. I also have that ability. But I also bring an additional quality that makes me an asset for the spring 2010 class: my attitude for excellence. Not just giving lip service to excellence, but putting every part of myself into achieving it. In college and at my previous jobs as a finance US soldier, I have consistently reached for becoming the very best I can become. I think my leadership awards from the military, and my management positions are the result of possessing the qualities that each MBA student will benefit from.
As you will note on my resume, I have not only an undergraduate degree in finance, I have also gone above and beyond to get a master in accounting. I doubled majored since I knew that the financial field requires much knowledge of portfolio analysis and understanding of the tax laws. I believe that my success in both areas of study have specifically prepared me to become successful. However, in addition to my finance and accounting degrees, an MBA from Northeastern will not only help in my career goals, but will help me sharpen my decision making skills.

How Is Caffeine Affecting Your Brain

How Is Caffeine Affecting Your BrainUsed by approximately 87% of the population, caffeine has become the most widely consumed neurostimulant in the world. Although intended to raise alertness in its users, researchers have found it can also affect the blood flow in our brains. Present in coffee, soft drinks, tea, chocolate, analgesics and dietary supplements, caffeine (1,3,7 ??“ trimethylxanthine) has become a part of our everyday lives. Its abundance raises many concerns in regards to its effects on our health and whether its benefits outweigh the consequences.Led by Merideth Addicott, researchers have discovered that caffeine acts as a competitive antagonist of adenosine A2A and A2B receptors found on cerebrovascular smooth muscle, leading to vasoconstriction of blood vessels. As a result, cerebral blood flow (CBF) is reduced. Adenosine, an essential cellular component involved with energy metabolism, acts as an extracellular signaling molecule through its binding to receptors found on nearly every cell in the body. Normally adenosine would bind to those receptors on vascular smooth muscle and cause vasodilation, but the presence of caffeine creates competition for binding sites, ultimately leading to vasoconstriction. The vasoconstrictive property of caffeine leads to a reduction of CBF.Caffeine users have also been known to experience symptoms of withdrawal proportional to their daily intake of the drug. These symptoms include headache, fatigue, and impaired concentration, emerging between 12 and 24 hours following caffeine termination. Symptoms may be present with consumption of as little as 100 mg/day of caffeine use. In their study, forty-five adult volunteers, aged 18-50 years, were selected based on a strict list of criteria and were organized into categories based on their daily caffeine consumption. Participants were defined as either ???low users??? (less than 200 mg/day), ???moderate users??? (between 200 and 600 mg/day), or ???high users??? (more than 600 mg/day). Users??™ CBF was then measured in two different states: a caffeinated state and a caffeine abstinent state to determine the relationship between CBF and chronic caffeine use. Caffeine abstention was defined as 30 hours of no caffeine use to ensure that caffeine concentrations were below the detection threshold (0.2 ?µg/ml) at the time of testing. The authors hypothesized that following a period of caffeine abstention, CBF would increase proportional to the daily caffeine use, and while in a native caffeinated state there would be no differences in CBF between caffeine use groups. In a randomized, double-blind study design, participants were chosen on four separate occasions to undergo quantitative perfusion imaging to measure their CBF in either the native or abstinent state. To ensure compliance with the study??™s requirements, saliva tests were issued prior to imaging to measure caffeine levels. After the saliva test, participants were either administered a placebo or 250 mg of caffeine. An hour later, a second saliva sample was taken as well as measurements of respiration rate, end-tidal CO2, oxygen saturation, heart rate, and blood pressure. The participants were then placed in a MRI scanner where functional, structural and perfusion imaging were completed. As the researchers had expected, post-drug caffeine concentrations had increased from the pre-drug concentrations only in caffeine conditions, but not in placebo conditions. Since there was no effect of drug conditions, concentrations of caffeine were averaged and salivary results showed significant differences between the three user groups. Following caffeine administration, users had also experienced a decrease in heart rate and an increase in blood pressure. MRI results showed that caffeine reduced gray matter CBF by 27% across all caffeine users. In the caffeine-abstained placebo condition, there was a positive correlation between daily caffeine use and CBF. To explain this increase, researchers suggested that the number of adenosine receptors were increased to adapt to increasing amounts of caffeine present. This upregulation would allow for more adenosine to bind despite the presence of caffeine and therefore counteract vasoconstriction and raise CBF to a level that would have existed had the user not consumed caffeine. Since the users were given a placebo, adenosine had no competition for receptor sites. High users had the greatest upregulation of receptors, therefore the most free receptors for adenosine to bind to. This condition exhibited the greatest CBF among all user groups when compared with other conditions. Participants who abstained from caffeine, but were administered a 250 mg dose of caffeine prior to imaging showed a similar correlation. Slightly greater CBF was found in high users than low users, which supports the researchers??™ hypothesis that high users have more adenosine receptors. The differences in CBF were much less in this condition due to the static 250 mg of caffeine present in each user group, therefore limiting the number of available adenosine receptors to increase CBF.Despite a step-wise increase in salivary concentration of caffeine among the three user groups, the native placebo condition showed similar CBF between users. The chronic intake of caffeine can lead to an increased number of A2A and A2B receptors (upregulation), therefore raising the user??™s tolerance. While this increase in tolerance may result in more receptors, it is offset by the proportional increase in caffeine concentration. Of the three user groups, high users showed a trend towards less CBF than the low and moderate users. This suggested that a withdrawal, or ???rebound???, effect on CBF is proportional to daily caffeine use.The participants in a native caffeine state who were administered an additional 250 mg of caffeine displayed results similar to the abstain-caffeine condition. This lack of difference in CBF is explained by a ceiling effect caused by maximum vasoconstriction. The researchers hypothesized that the 250 mg of caffeine given before imaging was enough for both conditions to have the most receptors occupied by caffeine.What do the results of these conditions mean As our intake of caffeine increases, we are raising our tolerance to the drug and subsequently lowering the amount of blood flow in our brains. Our bodies are adapting to this new environment we are creating by increasing the number of adenosine receptors present to offset the increased caffeine concentrations in our system. But just how much caffeine can our body tolerateDaily intake of caffeine ranges from 166 to 336 mg/day among adults 18 years and older. As shown by the difference in CBF between the abstained-caffeine and native-caffeine conditions, a single dose of 250 mg caffeine will produce maximum vasoconstriction by occupying the most adenosine receptors, leading to a peak tolerance. The fact that a single 250 mg dose of caffeine is enough for maximum vasoconstriction of blood vessels shows just how relevant this study is to our health.

The conclusions made in the study are sound. The strong correlation found between daily caffeine use and CBF indicates caffeine may have a larger effect on the body than initially intended. One aspect of caffeine use that the study does not cover is how withdrawal symptoms factor into CBF. An interesting direction for future research on caffeine??™s effects would be to examine the relationship between withdrawal symptoms reported by participants and CBF following the ingestion of caffeine.Reference:
1 Addicott, Merideth A. et al. 2009. Human Brain Mapping. 30(10): 3102-3114.

Contribution of Chemistry to Portable Water Industry

Of all the inputs of industry, the most critical is the RAW-MATERIAL because it plays a significant role in the nature, quality and quantity of the other four factors namely: technology, capital, labour and management. It is on this most crucial factor that chemistry plays its role. The truth of this assertion is clearly evident by merely taking a careful look at Chart 1.The role of chemistry if the conversion of matter from one form into another. Since this also is the aim of industry, chemistry has come to be regarded as the KING of Industry because of its utilitarian value to industry in which it platys a ???primus inter pares??? role and in some cases its role is ???sine qua non??? for industries. A few examples will drive home these assertions. Portable Water Industry: Food, which is the most basic of all the needs of man, can be subdivided into air, water and food (per se). Although air and water are divine provision, the impact of life (plats, animals and human) has produced some adverse effects on the quality of these needs, especially water. The quality of water can be examined within four sub-sections; physical, chemical, bacteriological and biological. The main physical characteristics for which water is examined are: appearance, colour turbidity, odour and taste (and at times temperature). In fact these are the only important characteristics to a villager.
The neglect of the other parameters led to (and still accounts for) the deaths of thousands of human beings. Today, science has led us into the appreciation of these other factors. Thus, chemistry has revealed the deleterious effects of toxic chemicals in water and how to remove them.
A few examples are:
(i) Nitrates (If present in concentrations greater than 45mg/L) present a health hazard to infants, because, after reduction to nitrites, they may give rise to methaemoglobinaemia. Also nitrosamines may arise as the products of the reaction between ingested nitrites (some of which may also be formed by the action of gut bacteria on ingested nitrates from various sources including water, and on secondary or tertiary amines present in food). As a result of their carcinogenic potential, nitrosamines are a possible hazard to human health.
(ii) Some polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are known1 to be carcinogenic and so, their presence in water is undesirable. He concentration of six representative PAH compounds (fluoranthene: 3,4-benzfluoranthene; 11,12-benzfluoranthene; 3,4-benzpyrene; 1,12-benzperylene and indeno (1,2,3,-cd) pyrene, should not exceed 0.2[pic]/L
iii) Water regulations limit the concentrations of some METALS (Notably Lead, chromium and iron) because of their undesirable effects on human health.
The most critical parameters of water which must be monitored are the bacteriological and biological profiles. There is no such thing as pure natural water. Natural water contains organic matter and dissolved oxygen and is, therefore, a natural breeding medium for bacteria. Typhoid fever, cholera and jaundice are caused by the infection of water supplies. In order that the bacteria causing these and other diseases may be eliminated, chemistry has supplied the means of sterilizing water for human consumption. Thus, water is normally sterilized by adding 0.5ppm of chlorine or 1-2ppm ozone. Before sterilization, water is pretreated with a mixture of chemicals so as to form a flocculent precipitate, which, in settling, carries with it, much of suspended and colloidal matter including bacteria. The chemicals commonly used are soluble aluminum or iron salts such as alum or ferrous sulphate plus lime. These are some of the contributions of chemistry to portable water industry.

How Is Dolphus Raymond Represented in Chapters 16,17 and 18 by Harper Lee

How is Dolphus Raymond represented in
Chapters 16,17 and 18 by Harper Lee Dolphus Raymond, though not one of the major characters in the book is used as a device by Harper Lee to help us understand the major characters such as Tom Robinson and Boo Radley. Dolphus Raymond is another Mockingbird used by Harper Lee as he has done nothing wrong (instead trying to help Dill) but is persecuted by the whole of Maycomb unjustly for something that he hasn??™t even done.
Dolphus Raymond is secretive man who separates himself from the Maycomb society and the white community as well. Dolphus marries a black woman and is criticized by the rest of Maycomb County. He puts on a show of being drunk majority of time by carrying a Pepsi bottle with “alcohol” inside; to give the county something to make up for the fact that he is with a black woman. Dolphus also has several kids with the woman but they kids are also criticize because they are different than everyone else.
Probably the most prominent prejudice in the novel is the racial prejudice. Tom Robinson was a black man who was accused of raping Mayella Ewell, a white girl. When Tom was put in jail awaiting trial, Atticus, his lawyer, went down one night and sat outside the jailhouse. A mob showed up that night with the intent to beat Tom Robinson but with Atticus there, the mob was stalled and eventually left. This mob was consumed with racial prejudice against the black people. Even Calpurnia, the black housekeeper for the Finches, is discriminated against. Although Calpurnia is treated fairly, it is obvious Calpurnia is considered to be on a lower social level than the Finches. Calpurnia calls Scout ma??™am and Jem sir, although these are titles usually reserved for elders. An example of this is on page 207. Calpurnia addresses Jem after they have been missing at the trial all day with ???Hush your mouth, sir! When you oughta be hangin your head in shame you go along laughin. If Mr. Finch dont wear you out, I will – get in that house, sir!”

Contribution of Technology in Assessment

Unit 1
Explain the contribution that technology can make to the assessment process
There are advantages in the use of technology for assessment, these include;
* More frequent formative and summative assessment
* Assessors can be alerted sooner to adapt assessment methods
* Can spend less time marking
* Self-assessment; in the students ???own time??™ at their pace when they are ready
* Increased student confidence
* Students like rapid results
Technology can be important in the assessment of transferable skills, and can be used to promote collaborative assessments shared between more than one subject area.
Technology can make it easier for assessors to monitor and track learner progress e.g. (through the recording of student??™s activities) and to tailor assessments to individual student??™s needs.
Technology can play a role in supporting assessment (measurement) of knowledge, skills and attitudes and the interpretation of assessment data. Assessment has to be valid and actually sample the knowledge, skills and attitudes that students are expected to develop through the course that are required in professional practice. It is also important that the assessment data can be used to support learning not just to certify achievement. Technology offers great promise in both these areas: it can help increase the validity of assessment tasks; it can help develop students understanding and it can help support the development of meta-cognitive capabilities important for the transfer of learning to new problems and contexts.
Technology can help assessors present and construct assessment tasks, make valid judgements of the student progress in learning, facilitate the provision of feedback and the support the production and delivery of marks.
Technology can enable students to submit assignments electronically and allows assessors to email feedback resulting in faster results also being cost effective and using time effectively.
Technology allows learners to participate in discussion forums and enhances web-based learning including distance or blended learning.
Technology is used for recording and storing assessment evidence and allows learners to manage their own electronic records. This helps maintain security and gives the learner a responsibility and involves them in maintaining confidentiality and complies with the data protection act.
Using technology, learners can develop an e-portfolio. An e-portfolio can be seen as a type of learning record that provides actual evidence of achievement. E-portfolios can facilitate students??™ reflections on their own learning, leading to more awareness of learning strategies and needs. E-portfolios could lead to better learning outcomes and can be seen as a valid contribution to the assessment process.
Using technology in the assessment process could present issues with ???authenticity??™. Ensuring that the person completing the evidence is who s/he says they are is an issue in assessment and not a security issue specific to computer based assessment. However, in a computer environment impersonation may be perceived as a greater risk.
Plagiarism could present an issue where the ???cut and paste??™ facility of word processors and information retrieval systems may tempt students to copy sections of text directly into their work. To guard against plagiarism students should be made aware of the law relating to copyright, especially when they are asked to compile portfolios.
The overall balance of assessments in a course is of vital importance, and although computerised testing facilities can provide a rapid means of assessing and providing feedback to large numbers of students it is essential to consider their use as part of the overall course/unit strategy, especially as multiple choice/limited response type questions can lead to an emphasis on ???shallow learning??™.
Electronic assessment tools are unlikely to reduce significantly the burden of assessment, but they can be used to promote deeper and more effective learning by testing a range of skills, knowledge and understanding.
Using technology in assessment does not have to mean more multiple choice testing to the exclusion of other assessment techniques. A wide range of innovative assessment methods lend themselves to technology based implementation.

How Is Gdp Affected by Higher Taxes Lower Taxes

I chose to visit ???Ross Dress for Less???. Ross is an off priced store that sells brand named products at a discount. Ross Department Store was first opened in San Bruno, California, in 1950 by Morris “Morrie” Ross. ???The next store was established in Pacifica, California, in the late 1950s???. ???In 1982 a group of investors, including Mervin Morris, founder of the Mervyns chain of department stores, purchased the six Ross Department Stores, changed the format to off-price retail units, and within three years rapidly expanded the chain to 107 stores???.
This store does not cater to one age group it caters to all age groups. One of the steps that Ross strives to incorporate into their stores is cultural diversity. They strive to have products that can be used by people of all cultures and nationalities. They use something called ???Cross-cultural analysis. It involves the study of similarities and differences among consumers in two or more nations or societies???.
Ross stores sell a variety of products, including clothes, shoes, furniture, jewelry, toys and household products. They sell accessories at reduced or sale price as well. There is a children??™s section, a teen section, a men??™s section and there is a women??™s sections as well. They sell all brands of clothing, household goods, perfumes, shoes and toys. They also sell accessories like hand bags and belts at reduced or sale prices.
The location of the store that I visited is in an area call Briercreek. It is a large shopping area that has been expanding and developing over the last few years. I believe the reason for the location of this store because of the revenue that it will generate being surrounded by an abundance of other shops and retail stores. Another reason for this location is that it is close to the airport as well as convenient for businesses, families and neighborhoods.
The type of people that shop at this retail store vary in age, race, size, economic status, background and culture. From time to time you will see all of the above shopping at Ross. There are people shopping there from all walks of life, people who are not financially challenged shop at Ross as well as people who are on a fixed income. They are all looking for discounts and sales because of the variety of merchandise available at this store. The target marketing segment for this store is all people because their view is to have a wide variety of products directed towards most if not all of its customers.
I do not think that most of the products that Ross sells can be easily and competitively shopped at other retail stores because of the low prices that Ross has on a daily basis. Other retail stores have some of the same products but they only have them at certain times, and are rarely on sale. Ross??™s prices are discounted every day. Not only are they discounted every day, they have such an abundance of products as well as a large variety of named brands. This is why it is hard for the same type of products to be easily and competitively shopped at other retail stores
The Ross store that I visited is very well laid out. When you enter the store there are carts readily available to use for your shopping pleasure. They have a jewelry case, as well as a clearance rack for you to browse immediately. There are signs hanging from the ceiling pointing out the different sections in the store, so you can find a particular section if you are looking for something specific.
In the store that I visited, you cannot get answers easily from clerks. They seem to be as lost as the customer. If you as them a question, they do not seem to have the answers that you need. Another downfall to the Ross dress for less is, when they call a manager to get some help, the manager seemed to have the attitude that he/she really does not want to be bothered. So no, you cannot get answers easily from clerks at this store.
Sales people do not seem to be well trained in any of the Ross stores that I have visited. I have visited several stores not only in the area where I live, but in other areas as well. They all seem to have been trained the same way. They could use a longer training period than what they were given, and accessed and or watched more in order to see how well they interact with customers.
As for the return policies of this store, I think they are comparable to the return policies of other stores. As with other stores, with your receipt you can obtain a full refund. If you do not have a receipt you have to settle for what the product is not selling for at that time. With this being a discount store the price of the product could have really dropped by the time that you decide to return it. So sometimes waiting the thirty days to return could really cost you.
In conclusion: the executives??™ running this company seemed to have put a lot of thought into the marketing activities connected with Ross. From what I have read, Ross regularly reviews the results of their marketing efforts, and they keep track of how they acquire new clients. They regularly assess how to trim their marketing budget without hurting their revenue. So I think by doing all of these things coupled with customer surveys and the discounts that they offer they will be able to continue to have customer loyalty and will be able to have a successful business for years to come.

Contributions of Enterprise Systems

The Contributions of Enterprise Systems
October-26th, 2011
Prof TurnerThe Contributions of Enterprise Systems
Enterprise systems are as important to businesses today as the employees who work with them. Enterprise Systems are typically the ???Cadillac??? of business networking systems. They offer a larger amount of data space and a higher quality of service. With that higher quality of service and larger data storage space, comes a larger cost to the business. Those higher costs are easier to absorb for larger businesses because they are essential for what they are doing and the data that they need to protect. An Enterprise System can also pay for itself in the form of better employee productivity. The system allows employees to input data and have it be readily available to other employees in a matter of seconds. That kind of synergy in a business can be invaluable, because it allows management the ability to focus on other areas of concern within the business. There are some drawbacks to running an Enterprise System. One of those drawbacks is most systems is the time and cost that a company will have to put into training their employees on how to run the system. The employees will have to know how data that is input into the system will affect other parts of the business. These systems also take time to get used to which can mean a loss in productivity and profits during that time. In the end an Enterprise System is not for every business, but it can definitely be something that helps large business turn a bigger profit over time, and because of that they are worth the amount of money that a business may spend on one. Reference:
Lauden, K. C. (2009). Essentials of Managment Information Systems (Eighth ed.). Prentice hall.

How Is Home a Happy Place

???Each poet depicts home as a happy place, what is there in the poems that show this??? you ask Well I am about to answer that. In two poems, ???Piano??™ and ???John Mouldy??™, the poets describe home in their poems which can be happy or an unhappy depending on a point of view taken. Looking at Piano, the poet is talking about a memory he has, of him as a child sitting under a piano. He seems to talk about his mother and fills the poem full of his nostalgic past, compared to John Moudly, the poet uses a man he has dubbed ???John Moudly??? as his subject, he sees John Moudly being content in his cellar as he describes him as ???a-smiling???, while in Piano, he ???weeps like a child??? for his past, contrast being content with one??™s life as it is and showing a melancholic emotion to want to go back to the past, where home can be what it is now or what it was before.
We can see the subject matter in a bland sense from the title, being ???Piano??™, which doesn??™t explain a lot but we are aware a piano is somewhere in this poem, but more so, we can find the subject matter but the language used and by context of the poem. The poet talks about him in the first stanza looking at himself as a child under a piano and sees his mother smiling and singing. The poet mentions a ???vista of years??? and this gives me the image of a beach side house as a vista is view and as it can give an image of say a beach to me, where beaches are usually filled with happiness, we can find this to be a happy moment in this life but reading on we see it mentions ???a vista of years??? meaning his memories, so the question is, what is home to him Looking at this, his home is his memories, his past, going back to when he was a child and he sees his mother smiling. The rhyme of the poem goes by a normal aabb couplet rhyme scheme which adds to a musical sense, backing up the poem??™s title as a piano is used to play music, and adding a sense of child like nostalgia, if we remember nursery rhymes, they have a rhyme scheme of either aabb or abab, the use of enjambments and caesuras, the poem takes a song like quality and music can take someone back to their memories, in their mind. The poem is in three quatrains with two rhyming couplets in each, this can be seen as structured into a song where each section is a verse talking about an overall subject.
The poet mentions in the second stanza ???with winter outside/ and the hymns in the cosy parlour, the tinkling piano our guide.??? Shows warmth to the parlour, with the piano again. We, as the reader, can find this to be a portrayal of home. Home tends to have warmth, safety and comfort; this contrasts to the winter outside which can have a cold, danger and perhaps discomfort, Where we all find home to be a place of happiness and comfort, the poet mentions this in the quote I have stated and with mention to the piano, it shows that music tends to revolve in his family home, and it seems to strengthen a relationship he has with his mother who in the start was smiling ???as she sings??? and his mother can also be the woman who is singing, taking him back to this memory. The mood of the poem is quite melancholic and nostalgic and this can reflect back that he is now an adult, he ???weeps like a child for the past.??? Showing that his life now, as an adult, is quite depressing and he is nowhere near his home, but looking back at his past, he cries because he sees that as his home and he wants to go back, to a simpler happier time filled with music.
Since music is played on a piano and can take someone??™s back to their memories, we can be led to believe that the image of the piano being his home, his home can have a piano and his past seems to be filled with music which can be brought out from his diction using words such as hymn, piano, boom, tinkling, sings and more. In Piano the poet??™s home is his childhood, like with all of us, we wish to go home and nowhere else. The saying goes ???there is no place like home??? and when he ???weep(s)??¦ for the past.??? We see that he seems to want to go back but he can??™t.
???John Mouldy??™ is about a person who saw a man he has dubbed ???John Moudly??? in a cellar, he seems him sitting there each day, smiling. Now, John Mouldy is seen ???a-smiling??? form the start towards the end. This shows that John Mouldy is very content with his life in his home being his cellar. The atmosphere of the poem is in John Mouldy??™s cellar, from the imagery we get, we see him as being in a mausoleum like area with the line ???deep down twenty steps of stone;??? which gives the poem a unpleasant scene.
We get an impression from John Moudly??™s life from a child who seems to have a life more advanced then that of John Mouldy, we see that John Mouldy??™s life seems depressing and lonely when mentioned ???smiling there alone??? and ???He read no book,??? which seems to weird to us as we have friends and family we have around us so we are never alone, showing our life is different from John Mouldy??™s, we find this to be a sad home being ???bleak and grim??? with even the brightest star, the ???Dog-star??? shining, not lifting the scene and making it happier, it is more depressing as this is an impression given from the child, where if John Moudly were to describe his life to us, I doubt it would be depressing and in a obscure tone but more of a happy tone. This can be found as everyone??™s home is different, another saying being ???a house can??™t be a home??? or something along those lines, where your friend??™s home is not like your home. John Mouldy??™s way of life is bleak, grim, dark, depressing and lonely as we see it and this adds a chill to our spine.
The language of ???John Mouldy??™ is a simply, child-like language, with the imagery being deathly throughout the poem. This can easily give us a first impression of his life. A child is ignorant of the concept of sympathy, and ignorant of the knowledge that everyone has different home, we find it that John Mouldy is insane, sitting there alone. The diction used would again contrast if John Mouldy were to tell this to us, words such as cellar, bleak, grim, rats and stone give a sense of loneliness, it is simple, and it is like a horror story to children. With usage of ???the rats ran in, the rats ran out;??? can be seen as related to child nursery rhymes such as ???hickory dickory dock, the mice ran up the clock??? or even ???three blind mice??? but, instead of using mice, he uses rats which give a different image to the reader compared to mice. An image of sick and disease, and decay, while mice, compared to those nursery rhymes can give an image of ???Aw, they??™re so cute.??? Where as we see a rat, we immediately go towards disgust. When mentioning, ???He read no book, he snuffed no candle;??? shows his lack of activity and less of a home-like atmosphere, since John Mouldy doesn??™t do any of this, we see this as strange and obscure. We feel as if John Mouldy has no home, it adds to an atmosphere of nothing being there for you, looking back at ???Piano??™, he mentions his home as cosy, showing warmth, comfort and safety but a lack of even a home-like atmosphere shows that there is no warmth, comfort or safety to John Mouldy from our point of view.
The rhythm is rather simple, it can be seen as slowly walking down a pathway to go and spy on John Mouldy, and of children skipping, it is like children chanting this on and on. The rhyme scheme follows an abcb rhyme scheme, without a simple rhythm, as in no iambic or trochaic pentameter. The poem is written in a traditional ballad form, it is musical and tells a story, compared to say a folk ballad, we remember this story from a memorable rhythm. This seems to also appear from a musical rhythm of ???I spied John Mouldy.??? Which seems to go back to a child??™s game of ???I spy with my little eye.???
Seeing as this is written for children, we can assume that it is to make children feel happy to see that they have a life different from John Mouldy??™s where they should say something like ???Thank God, my life is not like John Mouldy??™s. I have friends and books.??? The ballad form is supposed to seem to make children remember this word for word and then in the end contrast their life with that of John Mouldy and look back at it, since the rhythm is memorable, and a rhyme scheme of abcb, it is song-like where people memorise songs easily.
As I have mentioned before, there is a slight contrast in the poem, the voice of the poem talks about John Mouldy being alone, in a cellar, with rats, which can carry disease, with no books to read and no candle around, we find this strange but if John Mouldy were to explain it to us, he would describe his home to be very content and happy, as mentioned he was ???smiling there alone.??? He would describe his life as something happy, something he likes. He would enjoy the rats, the lack of books, and no candle. He would enjoy the dark and cold, the bleak and grim.
Looking at both poems we find they both seem to contrast. Piano talks about him lamenting for the past, he wants to go back to the past where he is happy. John Mouldy, instead doesn??™t go to the past, instead seems to compare their life with that of John Mouldy, the voice of the poem does not relent to the past, they do not wish to go back to a happier time but to compare their home with John Mouldy??™s home. Language in both poems are different, in Piano, he uses musical diction which compliments the title of the poem and where his home is shown by music of hymns in a cosy parlour contrasting to winter, where one is warm and safe and the other is cold and dangerous. In John Mouldy, the language is childlike, it is addressed to children showing the life of John Mouldy as being sad and lonely, it is like a child??™s rhyme, with a simple choice of words as compared to piano. In piano we find that the image of the piano is home to the poet but in John Mouldy, the voice??™s home is not like John Mouldy??™s home. Poets tend to show home being a happy place rather than an unhappy one. With a lack of a home bringing unhappiness.

Contributions of Sigmund Freud to Psychology

He was born in Moravia, Austro-Hungarian Empire in May 1856.Sigmund Freud had
enormous impact on the field of psychology. Freud was influenced by Breuer who
was interested in hysteria. His work led to an understanding of personality, clinical
psychology, human development and abnormal psychology. He wrote and
theorized on broad range of subjects including sex, dreams, religion, hysteria,
women and culture.
Sigmund??™s theories and major contribution
* The id, ego and super ego
* Life and death instincts
* Psychosexual development
* Defense mechanism
* Conscious and unconscious mind 1. The id ego and super ego
Freud introduced the idea that a part of the ego is unconscious. The ego is that
part of the id which has through perception being modified by the external
world. The id controls our basic biological needs and desires. The ego operates on rationality
and makes decisions on what to do or not to do. Whenever the id has a demand,
the ego makes a cognitive analysis of the situation. The ego is the mediator
between the id and the super ego. The super ego censors and keeps repressed

` 2. Life and death instincts
Life instincts are sometimes referred to as sexual instincts. They are instincts that
deal with survival and reproduction. They are important for sustaining the life of
an individual as well as species. They also include such drives as thirst, hunger and
pain avoidance.
According to Freud, the goal of all life is death. He concluded that people hold an
unconscious will to die but the wish is largely tempered by the life instincts.
According to Freud, self-destructive behavior is an expression of the energy
created by the death instincts. When this energy is directed outward onto others,
it is expressed as aggression and violence.
3.Psycho-sexual development
Freud broke down periods of child development into stages called the
psychosexual stages. The stages are:
Oral 1-2 years
Anal 2-3 years
Phallic 3-5 years
Latency 6-12 years
Genital 13 years and above.
He believed that if one of these stages was not completed correctly, a child would
grow into an adult that was not well adjusted. He emphasized the importance of
the influence of early parent-child relationship on development. He believed that
the parents ability to manage the child??™s sexual and aggressive would have a large
effect on how the child behaved as an adult.
4.Defense mechanism
According to Freudian psychoanalytic theory, defense mechanisms are
psychological strategies brought into play by the unconscious mind to
manipulate, deny and distort reality through processes such as
repression ,identification and rationalization. Defense mechanism are used when
someone is in a situation that causes anxiety.
5.Conscious and unconscious mind
He argued that the unconscious influenced not only abnormal individual behavior
but also normal behavior of the individual in social institutions. He argued that
dreaming had a key role in psychoanalytic theory. A dream is everybody??™s contact
with the unconscious.

How Is Jealousy a Pervasive Theme in the Lady or the Tiger

How is jealousy a pervasive theme in “The Lady or the Tiger“? Jealousy is a theme that is present throughout the story ?????™The lady or the Tiger??™??™. Written by Frank R. Stockton in 1882, The Lady or the Tiger is a very famous short story about consequences of your actions, jealousy and decisions. The emotion of jealousy permeates the society in which the story is occurring in the 18th century. In the story, there are three ways that jealousy supports this thesis. First, the king is jealous of his daughter??™s happiness. Secondly, jealousy is a feeling that is sometimes accompanied by sadness, anger and disgust. Finally, jealousy is mainly perceived by the princess??™s character in the story.Main point 1:The king expresses jealousy towards his daughter??™s happiness. ??? Detail: The king subjects his daughter??™s lover to judgment in the public arena.
??? Explanation: The king disapproves of the relationship between his daughter and the lover.
??? Quotation: ?????™He did not hesitate nor waver in regard to his duty in the premises. The youth was immediately cast into prison, and a day was appointed for his trial in the king??™s arena. ??? Detail: The king loves his daughter more than anything else in the world.
??? Explanation: He wants to keep her close to him and won??™t let anything hurt her.
??? Quotation: ?????™(??¦) she was the apple of his eye, and was loved by him above all humanity??™??™The father of the princess showed he felt jealousy but not only that. Jealousy is an emotion that can be linked to other feelings also.Main point 2:Jealousy is often accompanied by feelings of anger, sadness and disgust. ??? Detail: The daughter is very sad about the king??™s decision to judge her lover.
??? Explanation: She still has very strong feelings for her lover and wishes for their relationship to continue.
??? Quotation: This royal maiden was well satisfied with her lover, for he was handsome and brave to a degree unsurpassed in all this kingdom, and she loved him with an ardor that had enough barbarism in it to make it exceedingly warm and strong. ??? Detail: The princess would be angry if the lover fell in the love with the other lady.
??? Explanation: She was thinking about which door to make her lover open the night before the judgment in the arena.
??? Quotation: ?????™ How often, in her waking hours and in her dreams, had she started in wild horror, and covered her face with her hands as she thought of her lover opening the door on the other side of which waited the cruel fangs of the tiger! But how much oftener had she seen him at the other door! (??¦) and when she had seen them walk together upon their path of flowers.??™??™The other emotions that followed jealousy were very present in the story. That brings up the final main point which defines the best form of jealousy in ?????™The lady or the tiger??™??™.Main point 3:Finally, jealousy is mainly perceived in the princess??™ character in the story. ??? Detail: She is jealous of the lady who is hiding behind one of the doors.
??? Explanation: She says she hates her because she is beautiful and she saw her lover walking with her once.
??? Quotation: ?????™ It was one of the fairest and loveliest of the damsels (??¦) and the princess hated her.??™??™ ??? Detail: She doesn??™t want her lover to spend his life with another woman.
??? Explanation: She wants to live her life with her lover and no one else. She could not live seeing him with another woman.
??? Quotation: ?????™She had lost him, but who should have him??™??™In conclusion, we can see that one of the major themes of this story, jealousy, was present in the 18th century society. It was majorly pervasive by the king??™s character, who expressed jealousy by not wanting his daughter to leave him. Furthermore, the princess also expressed jealousy over her lover when she didn??™t know what door she should lead him to because she didn??™t want him to fall in love with the lady she hated. At last, we observed that there was more than one form of jealousy felt by an individual. Emotions like sadness, anger and disgust are also emotions linked to jealousy. My personal judgement is that jealousy was in fact a pervasive theme in ?????™The lady or the tiger??™??™ because there were many forms of it throughout all of the story. Many characters were also involved in the jealousy actions and thoughts.How is jealousy a pervasive theme in ?????™The lady or the tiger??™??™
By Catherine TraerPresented to Ms Vincent-Campbell
EnglishEcole secondaire publique Louis-Riel
Monday, October 4th 2010